- By Canonical Data Platform
|latest/stable||270||28 Feb 2023|
|latest/edge||281||17 Mar 2023|
juju deploy postgresql
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excerpt from http://www.postgresql.org/about/
PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system. It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness. It is fully ACID compliant, has full support for foreign keys, joins, views, triggers, and stored procedures (in multiple languages). It includes most SQL:2008 data types, including INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE, INTERVAL, and TIMESTAMP. It also supports storage of binary large objects, including pictures, sounds, or video. It has native programming interfaces for C/C++, Java, .Net, Perl, Python, Ruby, Tcl, ODBC, among others, and exceptional documentation.
An enterprise class database, PostgreSQL boasts sophisticated features such as Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC), point in time recovery, tablespaces, asynchronous replication, nested transactions (savepoints), online/hot backups, a sophisticated query planner/optimizer, and write ahead logging for fault tolerance. It supports international character sets, multibyte character encodings, Unicode, and it is locale-aware for sorting, case-sensitivity, and formatting. It is highly scalable both in the sheer quantity of data it can manage and in the number of concurrent users it can accommodate. There are active PostgreSQL systems in production environments that manage in excess of 4 terabytes of data.
This charm can deploy a single standalone PostgreSQL unit, or a service containing a single master unit and one or more replicas.
To setup a single 'standalone' service:
juju deploy postgresql pg-a
Scale Out Usage
To add a replica to an existing service:
juju add-unit pg-a
To deploy a new service containing a master and two hot standby replicas:
juju deploy -n 3 postgresql pg-b
You can remove units as normal. If the master unit is removed, failover occurs and the most up to date hot standby is promoted to the master. The 'db-relation-changed' and 'db-admin-relation-changed' hooks are fired, letting clients adjust:
juju remove-unit pg-b/0
To setup a client using a PostgreSQL database, in this case a vanilla Django installation listening on port 8080:
juju deploy postgresql juju deploy python-django juju deploy gunicorn juju add-relation python-django postgresql:db juju add-relation python-django gunicorn juju expose python-django
Interacting with the PostgreSQL Service
Python client charms should be composed using
provides an easy way of navigating the complexities of the client
interface. See http://interface-pgsql.readthedocs.io for details.
The PostgreSQL charm provides two client relations. The
provides a normal account to the requested database. The database
may be shared with other Juju Applications, allowing data to be shared.
db-admin relation provides administrative access to all databases
on the PostgreSQL units.
Note that due to the asynchronous nature of Juju and the relation model, you may be provided connection strings to PostgreSQL units that are not yet ready to accept connections from your client. Your charm and application should handle connection failures and retry later, like it would any other network outage.
Non-Python Client Charms
Your charm may optionally set the following attributes on the
db-admin relations in the relation-joined hook:
database- The requested database name
roles- A comma separated list of PostgreSQL roles to grant this relation's user. Roles will be created if they do not already exist.
extensions- A comma separated list of PostgreSQL extensions to install into the requested database.
The PostgreSQL units will eventually provide the following attributes on
master- The libpq connection string to the master database
standbys- A newline-separated list of libpq connection strings to the standby databases. This will be empty if there is only a single master unit.
Database Permissions and Disaster Recovery
⚠ These two topics are entwined, because failing to follow best practice with your database permissions will make your life difficult when you need to recover after failure.
PostgreSQL has comprehensive database security, including ownership and permissions on database objects. By default, any objects a client service creates will be owned by a user with the same name as the client service and inaccessible to other users. To share data, it is best to create new roles, grant the relevant permissions and object ownership to the new roles and finally grant these roles to the users your services can connect as. This also makes disaster recovery easier. If you restore a database into an identical Juju environment, then the service names and usernames will be the same and database permissions will match. However, if you restore a database into an environment with different client service names then the usernames will not match and the new users not have access to your data.
Learn about the SQL
GRANT statement in the excellent PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL dumps, such as those that can be scheduled in the charm, can
be recovered on a new unit by using 'juju ssh' to connect to the new unit
and using the standard PostgreSQL
pg_restore(1) tool. This new unit must
be standalone, or the master unit. Any hot standbys will replicate the
recovered data from the master.
You will need to use
pg_restore(1) with the
--no-owner option, as
users that existed in the old service will not exist in the new
If you had configured WAL-E, you can recover a WAL-E backup and replay
to a point in time of your choosing using the
wal-e tool. This
will recover the whole database cluster, so all databases will be
If there are any hot standby units, they will need to be destroyed and recreated after the PITR recovery.
Point In Time Recovery
The PostgreSQL charm has support for log shipping and point in time recovery using the wal-e2 tool. This feature requires access to either Amazon S3 (or compatible storage), Microsoft Azure Block Storage, Swift or the local file system. GCE support is available in wal-e, but not yet enabled in the charm.
/!\ It has only been tested with Swift, and other cloud storage should be considered experimental. Please let me know if it works for you with other providers.
The charm can be configured to perform regular filesystem backups and ship WAL files to the object store. Hot standbys will make use of the archived WAL files, allowing them to resync after extended netsplits or even let you turn off streaming replication entirely.
With a base backup and the WAL archive you can perform point in time recovery, but this is still a manual process and the charm does not yet help you do it. The simplest approach would be to create a new PostgreSQL service containing a single unit, 'juju ssh' in and use wal-e to replace the database after shutting it down, create a recovery.conf to replay the archived WAL files using wal-e, restart the database and wait for it to recover. Once recovered, new hot standby units can be added and client services related to the new database service.
To enable the experimental wal-e support with Swift, you will need to and set the service configuration settings similar to the following:
postgresql: wal_e_storage_uri: swift://mycontainer os_username: my_swift_username os_password: my_swift_password os_auth_url: https://keystone.auth.url.example.com:8080/v2/ os_tenant_name: my_tenant_name
Development and Contributions
The PostgreSQL Charm is maintained on Launchpad4 using git. The 'master' branch is a Reactive Framework Layer, and generates a deployable Charm using the 'charm build' command provided by charm-tools.
The latest stable source layer is in the 'master' branch in the git+ssh://git.launchpad.net/postgresql-charm repository. Merge proposals should be made against the 'master' branch. Do not make merge proposals against the old Bazaar branches or the 'built' branch.
Bug reports can be made at https://bugs.launchpad.net/postgresql-charm. Queries can be made in any of the major Juju forums, such as the main Juju mailing list or the #juju channel on Freenode IRC.
The latest tested, stable release of this charm can be found at
https://jujucharms.com/postgresql/ and deployed with juju using the
cs:postgresql. It is also available as the 'built' git branch
in the git+ssh://git.launchpad.net/postgresql-charm repository:
git clone -b built \ https://git.launchpad.net/postgresql-charm postgresql juju deploy ./postgresql