Loki

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charms.loki_k8s.v1.loki_push_api

#!/usr/bin/env python3
# Copyright 2023 Canonical Ltd.
# See LICENSE file for licensing details.
#
# Learn more at: https://juju.is/docs/sdk

r"""## Overview.

This document explains how to use the two principal objects this library provides:

- `LokiPushApiProvider`: This object is meant to be used by any Charmed Operator that needs to
implement the provider side of the `loki_push_api` relation interface. For instance, a Loki charm.
The provider side of the relation represents the server side, to which logs are being pushed.

- `LokiPushApiConsumer`: This object is meant to be used by any Charmed Operator that needs to
send log to Loki by implementing the consumer side of the `loki_push_api` relation interface.
For instance, a Promtail or Grafana agent charm which needs to send logs to Loki.

- `LogProxyConsumer`: DEPRECATED.
This object can be used by any Charmed Operator which needs to send telemetry, such as logs, to
Loki through a Log Proxy by implementing the consumer side of the `loki_push_api` relation
interface.
In order to be able to control the labels on the logs pushed this object adds a Pebble layer
that runs Promtail in the workload container, injecting Juju topology labels into the
logs on the fly.
This object is deprecated. Consider migrating to LogForwarder with the release of Juju 3.6 LTS.

- `LogForwarder`: This object can be used by any Charmed Operator which needs to send the workload
standard output (stdout) through Pebble's log forwarding mechanism, to Loki endpoints through the
`loki_push_api` relation interface.
In order to be able to control the labels on the logs pushed this object updates the pebble layer's
"log-targets" section with Juju topology.

Filtering logs in Loki is largely performed on the basis of labels. In the Juju ecosystem, Juju
topology labels are used to uniquely identify the workload which generates telemetry like logs.


## LokiPushApiProvider Library Usage

This object may be used by any Charmed Operator which implements the `loki_push_api` interface.
For instance, Loki or Grafana Agent.

For this purpose a charm needs to instantiate the `LokiPushApiProvider` object with one mandatory
and three optional arguments.

- `charm`: A reference to the parent (Loki) charm.

- `relation_name`: The name of the relation that the charm uses to interact
  with its clients, which implement `LokiPushApiConsumer` `LogForwarder`, or `LogProxyConsumer`
  (note that LogProxyConsumer is deprecated).

  If provided, this relation name must match a provided relation in metadata.yaml with the
  `loki_push_api` interface.

  The default relation name is "logging" for `LokiPushApiConsumer` and `LogForwarder`, and
  "log-proxy" for `LogProxyConsumer` (note that LogProxyConsumer is deprecated).

  For example, a provider's `metadata.yaml` file may look as follows:

  ```yaml
  provides:
    logging:
      interface: loki_push_api
  ```

  Subsequently, a Loki charm may instantiate the `LokiPushApiProvider` in its constructor as
  follows:

      from charms.loki_k8s.v1.loki_push_api import LokiPushApiProvider
      from loki_server import LokiServer
      ...

      class LokiOperatorCharm(CharmBase):
          ...

          def __init__(self, *args):
              super().__init__(*args)
              ...
              external_url = urlparse(self._external_url)
              self.loki_provider = LokiPushApiProvider(
                  self,
                  address=external_url.hostname or self.hostname,
                  port=external_url.port or 80,
                  scheme=external_url.scheme,
                  path=f"{external_url.path}/loki/api/v1/push",
              )
              ...

  - `port`: Loki Push Api endpoint port. Default value: `3100`.
  - `scheme`: Loki Push Api endpoint scheme (`HTTP` or `HTTPS`). Default value: `HTTP`
  - `address`: Loki Push Api endpoint address. Default value: `localhost`
  - `path`: Loki Push Api endpoint path. Default value: `loki/api/v1/push`


The `LokiPushApiProvider` object has several responsibilities:

1. Set the URL of the Loki Push API in the relation application data bag; the URL
   must be unique to all instances (e.g. using a load balancer).

2. Set the Promtail binary URL (`promtail_binary_zip_url`) so clients that use
   `LogProxyConsumer` object could download and configure it.

3. Process the metadata of the consumer application, provided via the
   "metadata" field of the consumer data bag, which are used to annotate the
   alert rules (see next point). An example for "metadata" is the following:

    {'model': 'loki',
     'model_uuid': '0b7d1071-ded2-4bf5-80a3-10a81aeb1386',
     'application': 'promtail-k8s'
    }

4. Process alert rules set into the relation by the `LokiPushApiConsumer`
   objects, e.g.:

    '{
         "groups": [{
             "name": "loki_0b7d1071-ded2-4bf5-80a3-10a81aeb1386_promtail-k8s_alerts",
             "rules": [{
                 "alert": "HighPercentageError",
                 "expr": "sum(rate({app=\\"foo\\", env=\\"production\\"} |= \\"error\\" [5m]))
                          by (job) \\n  /\\nsum(rate({app=\\"foo\\", env=\\"production\\"}[5m]))
                          by (job)\\n  > 0.05
                          \\n", "for": "10m",
                 "labels": {
                     "severity": "page",
                     "juju_model": "loki",
                     "juju_model_uuid": "0b7d1071-ded2-4bf5-80a3-10a81aeb1386",
                     "juju_application": "promtail-k8s"
                },
                "annotations": {
                    "summary": "High request latency"
               }
             }]
         }]
     }'


Once these alert rules are sent over relation data, the `LokiPushApiProvider` object
stores these files in the directory `/loki/rules` inside the Loki charm container. After
storing alert rules files, the object will check alert rules by querying Loki API
endpoint: [`loki/api/v1/rules`](https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/api/#list-rule-groups).
If there are changes in the alert rules a `loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed` event will
be emitted with details about the `RelationEvent` which triggered it.

This events should be observed in the charm that uses `LokiPushApiProvider`:

```python
    def __init__(self, *args):
        super().__init__(*args)
        ...
        self.loki_provider = LokiPushApiProvider(self)
        self.framework.observe(
            self.loki_provider.on.loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed,
            self._loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed,
        )
```


## LokiPushApiConsumer Library Usage

This Loki charm interacts with its clients using the Loki charm library. Charms
seeking to send log to Loki, must do so using the `LokiPushApiConsumer` object from
this charm library.

> **NOTE**: `LokiPushApiConsumer` also depends on an additional charm library.
>
> Ensure sure you `charmcraft fetch-lib charms.observability_libs.v0.juju_topology`
> when using this library.

For the simplest use cases, using the `LokiPushApiConsumer` object only requires
instantiating it, typically in the constructor of your charm (the one which
sends logs).

```python
from charms.loki_k8s.v1.loki_push_api import LokiPushApiConsumer

class LokiClientCharm(CharmBase):

    def __init__(self, *args):
        super().__init__(*args)
        ...
        self._loki_consumer = LokiPushApiConsumer(self)
```

The `LokiPushApiConsumer` constructor requires two things:

- A reference to the parent (LokiClientCharm) charm.

- Optionally, the name of the relation that the Loki charm uses to interact
  with its clients. If provided, this relation name must match a required
  relation in metadata.yaml with the `loki_push_api` interface.

  This argument is not required if your metadata.yaml has precisely one
  required relation in metadata.yaml with the `loki_push_api` interface, as the
  lib will automatically resolve the relation name inspecting the using the
  meta information of the charm

Any time the relation between a Loki provider charm and a Loki consumer charm is
established, a `LokiPushApiEndpointJoined` event is fired. In the consumer side
is it possible to observe this event with:

```python

self.framework.observe(
    self._loki_consumer.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_joined,
    self._on_loki_push_api_endpoint_joined,
)
```

Any time there are departures in relations between the consumer charm and Loki
the consumer charm is informed, through a `LokiPushApiEndpointDeparted` event, for instance:

```python
self.framework.observe(
    self._loki_consumer.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_departed,
    self._on_loki_push_api_endpoint_departed,
)
```

The consumer charm can then choose to update its configuration in both situations.

Note that LokiPushApiConsumer does not add any labels automatically on its own. In
order to better integrate with the Canonical Observability Stack, you may want to configure your
software to add Juju topology labels. The
[observability-libs](https://charmhub.io/observability-libs) library can be used to get topology
labels in charm code. See :func:`LogProxyConsumer._scrape_configs` for an example of how
to do this with promtail.

## LogProxyConsumer Library Usage

> Note: This object is deprecated. Consider migrating to LogForwarder with the release of Juju 3.6
> LTS.

Let's say that we have a workload charm that produces logs, and we need to send those logs to a
workload implementing the `loki_push_api` interface, such as `Loki` or `Grafana Agent`.

Adopting this object in a Charmed Operator consist of two steps:

1. Use the `LogProxyConsumer` class by instantiating it in the `__init__` method of the charmed
   operator. There are two ways to get logs in to promtail. You can give it a list of files to
   read, or you can write to it using the syslog protocol.

   For example:

   ```python
   from charms.loki_k8s.v1.loki_push_api import LogProxyConsumer

   ...

       def __init__(self, *args):
           ...
           self._log_proxy = LogProxyConsumer(
               self,
               logs_scheme={
                   "workload-a": {
                       "log-files": ["/tmp/worload-a-1.log", "/tmp/worload-a-2.log"],
                       "syslog-port": 1514,
                   },
                   "workload-b": {"log-files": ["/tmp/worload-b.log"], "syslog-port": 1515},
               },
               relation_name="log-proxy",
           )
           self.framework.observe(
               self._log_proxy.on.promtail_digest_error,
               self._promtail_error,
           )

       def _promtail_error(self, event):
           logger.error(event.message)
           self.unit.status = BlockedStatus(event.message)
   ```

   Any time the relation between a provider charm and a LogProxy consumer charm is
   established, a `LogProxyEndpointJoined` event is fired. In the consumer side is it
   possible to observe this event with:

   ```python

   self.framework.observe(
       self._log_proxy.on.log_proxy_endpoint_joined,
       self._on_log_proxy_endpoint_joined,
   )
   ```

   Any time there are departures in relations between the consumer charm and the provider
   the consumer charm is informed, through a `LogProxyEndpointDeparted` event, for instance:

   ```python
   self.framework.observe(
       self._log_proxy.on.log_proxy_endpoint_departed,
       self._on_log_proxy_endpoint_departed,
   )
   ```

   The consumer charm can then choose to update its configuration in both situations.

   Note that:

   - You can configure your syslog software using `localhost` as the address and the method
     `LogProxyConsumer.syslog_port("container_name")` to get the port, or, alternatively, if you are using rsyslog
     you may use the method `LogProxyConsumer.rsyslog_config("container_name")`.

2. Modify the `metadata.yaml` file to add:

   - The `log-proxy` relation in the `requires` section:
     ```yaml
     requires:
       log-proxy:
         interface: loki_push_api
         optional: true
     ```

Once the library is implemented in a Charmed Operator and a relation is established with
the charm that implements the `loki_push_api` interface, the library will inject a
Pebble layer that runs Promtail in the workload container to send logs.

By default, the promtail binary injected into the container will be downloaded from the internet.
If, for any reason, the container has limited network access, you may allow charm administrators
to provide their own promtail binary at runtime by adding the following snippet to your charm
metadata:

```yaml
resources:
  promtail-bin:
      type: file
      description: Promtail binary for logging
      filename: promtail-linux
```

Which would then allow operators to deploy the charm this way:

```
juju deploy \
    ./your_charm.charm \
    --resource promtail-bin=/tmp/promtail-linux-amd64
```

If a different resource name is used, it can be specified with the `promtail_resource_name`
argument to the `LogProxyConsumer` constructor.

The object can emit a `PromtailDigestError` event:

- Promtail binary cannot be downloaded.
- The sha256 sum mismatch for promtail binary.

The object can raise a `ContainerNotFoundError` event:

- No `container_name` parameter has been specified and the Pod has more than 1 container.

These can be monitored via the PromtailDigestError events via:

```python
   self.framework.observe(
       self._loki_consumer.on.promtail_digest_error,
       self._promtail_error,
   )

   def _promtail_error(self, event):
       logger.error(msg)
       self.unit.status = BlockedStatus(event.message)
    )
```

## LogForwarder class Usage

Let's say that we have a charm's workload that writes logs to the standard output (stdout),
and we need to send those logs to a workload implementing the `loki_push_api` interface,
such as `Loki` or `Grafana Agent`. To know how to reach a Loki instance, a charm would
typically use the `loki_push_api` interface.

Use the `LogForwarder` class by instantiating it in the `__init__` method of the charm:

```python
from charms.loki_k8s.v1.loki_push_api import LogForwarder

...

  def __init__(self, *args):
      ...
      self._log_forwarder = LogForwarder(
          self,
          relation_name="logging"  # optional, defaults to `logging`
      )
```

The `LogForwarder` by default will observe relation events on the `logging` endpoint and
enable/disable log forwarding automatically.
Next, modify the `metadata.yaml` file to add:

The `log-forwarding` relation in the `requires` section:
```yaml
requires:
 logging:
   interface: loki_push_api
   optional: true
```

Once the LogForwader class is implemented in your charm and the relation (implementing the
`loki_push_api` interface) is active and healthy, the library will inject a Pebble layer in
each workload container the charm has access to, to configure Pebble's log forwarding
feature and start sending logs to Loki.

## Alerting Rules

This charm library also supports gathering alerting rules from all related Loki client
charms and enabling corresponding alerts within the Loki charm. Alert rules are
automatically gathered by `LokiPushApiConsumer` object from a directory conventionally
named `loki_alert_rules`.

This directory must reside at the top level in the `src` folder of the
consumer charm. Each file in this directory is assumed to be a single alert rule
in YAML format. The file name must have the `.rule` extension.
The format of this alert rule conforms to the
[Loki docs](https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/rules/#alerting-rules).

An example of the contents of one such file is shown below.

```yaml
alert: HighPercentageError
expr: |
  sum(rate({%%juju_topology%%} |= "error" [5m])) by (job)
    /
  sum(rate({%%juju_topology%%}[5m])) by (job)
    > 0.05
for: 10m
labels:
    severity: page
annotations:
    summary: High request latency

```

It is **critical** to use the `%%juju_topology%%` filter in the expression for the alert
rule shown above. This filter is a stub that is automatically replaced by the
`LokiPushApiConsumer` following Loki Client's Juju topology (application, model and its
UUID). Such a topology filter is essential to ensure that alert rules submitted by one
provider charm generates alerts only for that same charm.

The Loki charm may be related to multiple Loki client charms. Without this, filter
rules submitted by one provider charm will also result in corresponding alerts for other
provider charms. Hence, every alert rule expression must include such a topology filter stub.

Gathering alert rules and generating rule files within the Loki charm is easily done using
the `alerts()` method of `LokiPushApiProvider`. Alerts generated by Loki will automatically
include Juju topology labels in the alerts. These labels indicate the source of the alert.

The following labels are automatically added to every alert

- `juju_model`
- `juju_model_uuid`
- `juju_application`


Whether alert rules files does not contain the keys `alert` or `expr` or there is no alert
rules file in `alert_rules_path` a `loki_push_api_alert_rules_error` event is emitted.

To handle these situations the event must be observed in the `LokiClientCharm` charm.py file:

```python
class LokiClientCharm(CharmBase):

    def __init__(self, *args):
        super().__init__(*args)
        ...
        self._loki_consumer = LokiPushApiConsumer(self)

        self.framework.observe(
            self._loki_consumer.on.loki_push_api_alert_rules_error,
            self._alert_rules_error
        )

    def _alert_rules_error(self, event):
        self.unit.status = BlockedStatus(event.message)
```

## Relation Data

The Loki charm uses both application and unit relation data to obtain information regarding
Loki Push API and alert rules.

Units of consumer charm send their alert rules over app relation data using the `alert_rules`
key.
"""

import json
import logging
import os
import platform
import re
import socket
import subprocess
import tempfile
import typing
from copy import deepcopy
from gzip import GzipFile
from hashlib import sha256
from io import BytesIO
from pathlib import Path
from typing import Any, Dict, List, Optional, Tuple, Union
from urllib import request
from urllib.error import URLError

import yaml
from cosl import JujuTopology
from ops.charm import (
    CharmBase,
    HookEvent,
    PebbleReadyEvent,
    RelationBrokenEvent,
    RelationCreatedEvent,
    RelationDepartedEvent,
    RelationEvent,
    RelationJoinedEvent,
    RelationRole,
    WorkloadEvent,
)
from ops.framework import EventBase, EventSource, Object, ObjectEvents
from ops.jujuversion import JujuVersion
from ops.model import Container, ModelError, Relation
from ops.pebble import APIError, ChangeError, Layer, PathError, ProtocolError

# The unique Charmhub library identifier, never change it
LIBID = "bf76f23cdd03464b877c52bd1d2f563e"

# Increment this major API version when introducing breaking changes
LIBAPI = 1

# Increment this PATCH version before using `charmcraft publish-lib` or reset
# to 0 if you are raising the major API version
LIBPATCH = 11

PYDEPS = ["cosl"]

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

RELATION_INTERFACE_NAME = "loki_push_api"
DEFAULT_RELATION_NAME = "logging"
DEFAULT_ALERT_RULES_RELATIVE_PATH = "./src/loki_alert_rules"
DEFAULT_LOG_PROXY_RELATION_NAME = "log-proxy"

PROMTAIL_BASE_URL = "https://github.com/canonical/loki-k8s-operator/releases/download"
# To update Promtail version you only need to change the PROMTAIL_VERSION and
# update all sha256 sums in PROMTAIL_BINARIES. To support a new architecture
# you only need to add a new key value pair for the architecture in PROMTAIL_BINARIES.
PROMTAIL_VERSION = "v2.9.7"
PROMTAIL_ARM_BINARY = {
    "filename": "promtail-static-arm64",
    "zipsha": "c083fdb45e5c794103f974eeb426489b4142438d9e10d0ae272b2aff886e249b",
    "binsha": "4cd055c477a301c0bdfdbcea514e6e93f6df5d57425ce10ffc77f3e16fec1ddf",
}

PROMTAIL_BINARIES = {
    "amd64": {
        "filename": "promtail-static-amd64",
        "zipsha": "6873cbdabf23062aeefed6de5f00ff382710332af3ab90a48c253ea17e08f465",
        "binsha": "28da9b99f81296fe297831f3bc9d92aea43b4a92826b8ff04ba433b8cb92fb50",
    },
    "arm64": PROMTAIL_ARM_BINARY,
    "aarch64": PROMTAIL_ARM_BINARY,
}

# Paths in `charm` container
BINARY_DIR = "/tmp"

# Paths in `workload` container
WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR = "/opt/promtail"
WORKLOAD_CONFIG_DIR = "/etc/promtail"
WORKLOAD_CONFIG_FILE_NAME = "promtail_config.yaml"
WORKLOAD_CONFIG_PATH = "{}/{}".format(WORKLOAD_CONFIG_DIR, WORKLOAD_CONFIG_FILE_NAME)
WORKLOAD_POSITIONS_PATH = "{}/positions.yaml".format(WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR)
WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME = "promtail"

# These are the initial port values. As we can have more than one container,
# we use odd and even numbers to avoid collisions.
# Each new container adds 2 to the previous value.
HTTP_LISTEN_PORT_START = 9080  # even start port
GRPC_LISTEN_PORT_START = 9095  # odd start port


class RelationNotFoundError(ValueError):
    """Raised if there is no relation with the given name."""

    def __init__(self, relation_name: str):
        self.relation_name = relation_name
        self.message = "No relation named '{}' found".format(relation_name)

        super().__init__(self.message)


class RelationInterfaceMismatchError(Exception):
    """Raised if the relation with the given name has a different interface."""

    def __init__(
        self,
        relation_name: str,
        expected_relation_interface: str,
        actual_relation_interface: str,
    ):
        self.relation_name = relation_name
        self.expected_relation_interface = expected_relation_interface
        self.actual_relation_interface = actual_relation_interface
        self.message = (
            "The '{}' relation has '{}' as interface rather than the expected '{}'".format(
                relation_name, actual_relation_interface, expected_relation_interface
            )
        )
        super().__init__(self.message)


class RelationRoleMismatchError(Exception):
    """Raised if the relation with the given name has a different direction."""

    def __init__(
        self,
        relation_name: str,
        expected_relation_role: RelationRole,
        actual_relation_role: RelationRole,
    ):
        self.relation_name = relation_name
        self.expected_relation_interface = expected_relation_role
        self.actual_relation_role = actual_relation_role
        self.message = "The '{}' relation has role '{}' rather than the expected '{}'".format(
            relation_name, repr(actual_relation_role), repr(expected_relation_role)
        )
        super().__init__(self.message)


def _validate_relation_by_interface_and_direction(
    charm: CharmBase,
    relation_name: str,
    expected_relation_interface: str,
    expected_relation_role: RelationRole,
):
    """Verifies that a relation has the necessary characteristics.

    Verifies that the `relation_name` provided: (1) exists in metadata.yaml,
    (2) declares as interface the interface name passed as `relation_interface`
    and (3) has the right "direction", i.e., it is a relation that `charm`
    provides or requires.

    Args:
        charm: a `CharmBase` object to scan for the matching relation.
        relation_name: the name of the relation to be verified.
        expected_relation_interface: the interface name to be matched by the
            relation named `relation_name`.
        expected_relation_role: whether the `relation_name` must be either
            provided or required by `charm`.

    Raises:
        RelationNotFoundError: If there is no relation in the charm's metadata.yaml
            with the same name as provided via `relation_name` argument.
        RelationInterfaceMismatchError: The relation with the same name as provided
            via `relation_name` argument does not have the same relation interface
            as specified via the `expected_relation_interface` argument.
        RelationRoleMismatchError: If the relation with the same name as provided
            via `relation_name` argument does not have the same role as specified
            via the `expected_relation_role` argument.
    """
    if relation_name not in charm.meta.relations:
        raise RelationNotFoundError(relation_name)

    relation = charm.meta.relations[relation_name]

    actual_relation_interface = relation.interface_name
    if actual_relation_interface != expected_relation_interface:
        raise RelationInterfaceMismatchError(
            relation_name,
            expected_relation_interface,
            actual_relation_interface,  # pyright: ignore
        )

    if expected_relation_role == RelationRole.provides:
        if relation_name not in charm.meta.provides:
            raise RelationRoleMismatchError(
                relation_name, RelationRole.provides, RelationRole.requires
            )
    elif expected_relation_role == RelationRole.requires:
        if relation_name not in charm.meta.requires:
            raise RelationRoleMismatchError(
                relation_name, RelationRole.requires, RelationRole.provides
            )
    else:
        raise Exception("Unexpected RelationDirection: {}".format(expected_relation_role))


class InvalidAlertRulePathError(Exception):
    """Raised if the alert rules folder cannot be found or is otherwise invalid."""

    def __init__(
        self,
        alert_rules_absolute_path: Path,
        message: str,
    ):
        self.alert_rules_absolute_path = alert_rules_absolute_path
        self.message = message

        super().__init__(self.message)


def _is_official_alert_rule_format(rules_dict: dict) -> bool:
    """Are alert rules in the upstream format as supported by Loki.

    Alert rules in dictionary format are in "official" form if they
    contain a "groups" key, since this implies they contain a list of
    alert rule groups.

    Args:
        rules_dict: a set of alert rules in Python dictionary format

    Returns:
        True if alert rules are in official Loki file format.
    """
    return "groups" in rules_dict


def _is_single_alert_rule_format(rules_dict: dict) -> bool:
    """Are alert rules in single rule format.

    The Loki charm library supports reading of alert rules in a
    custom format that consists of a single alert rule per file. This
    does not conform to the official Loki alert rule file format
    which requires that each alert rules file consists of a list of
    alert rule groups and each group consists of a list of alert
    rules.

    Alert rules in dictionary form are considered to be in single rule
    format if in the least it contains two keys corresponding to the
    alert rule name and alert expression.

    Returns:
        True if alert rule is in single rule file format.
    """
    # one alert rule per file
    return set(rules_dict) >= {"alert", "expr"}


class AlertRules:
    """Utility class for amalgamating Loki alert rule files and injecting juju topology.

    An `AlertRules` object supports aggregating alert rules from files and directories in both
    official and single rule file formats using the `add_path()` method. All the alert rules
    read are annotated with Juju topology labels and amalgamated into a single data structure
    in the form of a Python dictionary using the `as_dict()` method. Such a dictionary can be
    easily dumped into JSON format and exchanged over relation data. The dictionary can also
    be dumped into YAML format and written directly into an alert rules file that is read by
    Loki. Note that multiple `AlertRules` objects must not be written into the same file,
    since Loki allows only a single list of alert rule groups per alert rules file.

    The official Loki format is a YAML file conforming to the Loki documentation
    (https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/api/#list-rule-groups).
    The custom single rule format is a subsection of the official YAML, having a single alert
    rule, effectively "one alert per file".
    """

    # This class uses the following terminology for the various parts of a rule file:
    # - alert rules file: the entire groups[] yaml, including the "groups:" key.
    # - alert groups (plural): the list of groups[] (a list, i.e. no "groups:" key) - it is a list
    #   of dictionaries that have the "name" and "rules" keys.
    # - alert group (singular): a single dictionary that has the "name" and "rules" keys.
    # - alert rules (plural): all the alerts in a given alert group - a list of dictionaries with
    #   the "alert" and "expr" keys.
    # - alert rule (singular): a single dictionary that has the "alert" and "expr" keys.

    def __init__(self, topology: Optional[JujuTopology] = None):
        """Build and alert rule object.

        Args:
            topology: a `JujuTopology` instance that is used to annotate all alert rules.
        """
        self.topology = topology
        self.tool = CosTool(None)
        self.alert_groups = []  # type: List[dict]

    def _from_file(self, root_path: Path, file_path: Path) -> List[dict]:
        """Read a rules file from path, injecting juju topology.

        Args:
            root_path: full path to the root rules folder (used only for generating group name)
            file_path: full path to a *.rule file.

        Returns:
            A list of dictionaries representing the rules file, if file is valid (the structure is
            formed by `yaml.safe_load` of the file); an empty list otherwise.
        """
        with file_path.open() as rf:
            # Load a list of rules from file then add labels and filters
            try:
                rule_file = yaml.safe_load(rf) or {}

            except Exception as e:
                logger.error("Failed to read alert rules from %s: %s", file_path.name, e)
                return []

            if _is_official_alert_rule_format(rule_file):
                alert_groups = rule_file["groups"]
            elif _is_single_alert_rule_format(rule_file):
                # convert to list of alert groups
                # group name is made up from the file name
                alert_groups = [{"name": file_path.stem, "rules": [rule_file]}]
            else:
                # invalid/unsupported
                reason = "file is empty" if not rule_file else "unexpected file structure"
                logger.error("Invalid rules file (%s): %s", reason, file_path.name)
                return []

            # update rules with additional metadata
            for alert_group in alert_groups:
                # update group name with topology and sub-path
                alert_group["name"] = self._group_name(
                    str(root_path),
                    str(file_path),
                    alert_group["name"],
                )

                # add "juju_" topology labels
                for alert_rule in alert_group["rules"]:
                    if "labels" not in alert_rule:
                        alert_rule["labels"] = {}

                    if self.topology:
                        # only insert labels that do not already exist
                        for label, val in self.topology.label_matcher_dict.items():
                            if label not in alert_rule["labels"]:
                                alert_rule["labels"][label] = val

                        # insert juju topology filters into a prometheus alert rule
                        # logql doesn't like empty matchers, so add a job matcher which hits
                        # any string as a "wildcard" which the topology labels will
                        # filter down
                        alert_rule["expr"] = self.tool.inject_label_matchers(
                            re.sub(r"%%juju_topology%%", r'job=~".+"', alert_rule["expr"]),
                            self.topology.label_matcher_dict,
                        )

            return alert_groups

    def _group_name(
        self,
        root_path: typing.Union[Path, str],
        file_path: typing.Union[Path, str],
        group_name: str,
    ) -> str:
        """Generate group name from path and topology.

        The group name is made up of the relative path between the root dir_path, the file path,
        and topology identifier.

        Args:
            root_path: path to the root rules dir.
            file_path: path to rule file.
            group_name: original group name to keep as part of the new augmented group name

        Returns:
            New group name, augmented by juju topology and relative path.
        """
        file_path = Path(file_path) if not isinstance(file_path, Path) else file_path
        root_path = Path(root_path) if not isinstance(root_path, Path) else root_path
        rel_path = file_path.parent.relative_to(root_path.as_posix())

        # We should account for both absolute paths and Windows paths. Convert it to a POSIX
        # string, strip off any leading /, then join it

        path_str = ""
        if not rel_path == Path("."):
            # Get rid of leading / and optionally drive letters so they don't muck up
            # the template later, since Path.parts returns them. The 'if relpath.is_absolute ...'
            # isn't even needed since re.sub doesn't throw exceptions if it doesn't match, so it's
            # optional, but it makes it clear what we're doing.

            # Note that Path doesn't actually care whether the path is valid just to instantiate
            # the object, so we can happily strip that stuff out to make templating nicer
            rel_path = Path(
                re.sub(r"^([A-Za-z]+:)?/", "", rel_path.as_posix())
                if rel_path.is_absolute()
                else str(rel_path)
            )

            # Get rid of relative path characters in the middle which both os.path and pathlib
            # leave hanging around. We could use path.resolve(), but that would lead to very
            # long template strings when rules come from pods and/or other deeply nested charm
            # paths
            path_str = "_".join(filter(lambda x: x not in ["..", "/"], rel_path.parts))

        # Generate group name:
        #  - name, from juju topology
        #  - suffix, from the relative path of the rule file;
        group_name_parts = [self.topology.identifier] if self.topology else []
        group_name_parts.extend([path_str, group_name, "alerts"])
        # filter to remove empty strings
        return "_".join(filter(lambda x: x, group_name_parts))

    @classmethod
    def _multi_suffix_glob(
        cls, dir_path: Path, suffixes: List[str], recursive: bool = True
    ) -> list:
        """Helper function for getting all files in a directory that have a matching suffix.

        Args:
            dir_path: path to the directory to glob from.
            suffixes: list of suffixes to include in the glob (items should begin with a period).
            recursive: a flag indicating whether a glob is recursive (nested) or not.

        Returns:
            List of files in `dir_path` that have one of the suffixes specified in `suffixes`.
        """
        all_files_in_dir = dir_path.glob("**/*" if recursive else "*")
        return list(filter(lambda f: f.is_file() and f.suffix in suffixes, all_files_in_dir))

    def _from_dir(self, dir_path: Path, recursive: bool) -> List[dict]:
        """Read all rule files in a directory.

        All rules from files for the same directory are loaded into a single
        group. The generated name of this group includes juju topology.
        By default, only the top directory is scanned; for nested scanning, pass `recursive=True`.

        Args:
            dir_path: directory containing *.rule files (alert rules without groups).
            recursive: flag indicating whether to scan for rule files recursively.

        Returns:
            a list of dictionaries representing prometheus alert rule groups, each dictionary
            representing an alert group (structure determined by `yaml.safe_load`).
        """
        alert_groups = []  # type: List[dict]

        # Gather all alerts into a list of groups
        for file_path in self._multi_suffix_glob(dir_path, [".rule", ".rules"], recursive):
            alert_groups_from_file = self._from_file(dir_path, file_path)
            if alert_groups_from_file:
                logger.debug("Reading alert rule from %s", file_path)
                alert_groups.extend(alert_groups_from_file)

        return alert_groups

    def add_path(self, path_str: str, *, recursive: bool = False):
        """Add rules from a dir path.

        All rules from files are aggregated into a data structure representing a single rule file.
        All group names are augmented with juju topology.

        Args:
            path_str: either a rules file or a dir of rules files.
            recursive: whether to read files recursively or not (no impact if `path` is a file).

        Raises:
            InvalidAlertRulePathError: if the provided path is invalid.
        """
        path = Path(path_str)  # type: Path
        if path.is_dir():
            self.alert_groups.extend(self._from_dir(path, recursive))
        elif path.is_file():
            self.alert_groups.extend(self._from_file(path.parent, path))
        else:
            logger.debug("The alerts file does not exist: %s", path)

    def as_dict(self) -> dict:
        """Return standard alert rules file in dict representation.

        Returns:
            a dictionary containing a single list of alert rule groups.
            The list of alert rule groups is provided as value of the
            "groups" dictionary key.
        """
        return {"groups": self.alert_groups} if self.alert_groups else {}


def _resolve_dir_against_charm_path(charm: CharmBase, *path_elements: str) -> str:
    """Resolve the provided path items against the directory of the main file.

    Look up the directory of the `main.py` file being executed. This is normally
    going to be the charm.py file of the charm including this library. Then, resolve
    the provided path elements and, if the result path exists and is a directory,
    return its absolute path; otherwise, raise en exception.

    Raises:
        InvalidAlertRulePathError, if the path does not exist or is not a directory.
    """
    charm_dir = Path(str(charm.charm_dir))
    if not charm_dir.exists() or not charm_dir.is_dir():
        # Operator Framework does not currently expose a robust
        # way to determine the top level charm source directory
        # that is consistent across deployed charms and unit tests
        # Hence for unit tests the current working directory is used
        # TODO: updated this logic when the following ticket is resolved
        # https://github.com/canonical/operator/issues/643
        charm_dir = Path(os.getcwd())

    alerts_dir_path = charm_dir.absolute().joinpath(*path_elements)

    if not alerts_dir_path.exists():
        raise InvalidAlertRulePathError(alerts_dir_path, "directory does not exist")
    if not alerts_dir_path.is_dir():
        raise InvalidAlertRulePathError(alerts_dir_path, "is not a directory")

    return str(alerts_dir_path)


class NoRelationWithInterfaceFoundError(Exception):
    """No relations with the given interface are found in the charm meta."""

    def __init__(self, charm: CharmBase, relation_interface: Optional[str] = None):
        self.charm = charm
        self.relation_interface = relation_interface
        self.message = (
            "No relations with interface '{}' found in the meta of the '{}' charm".format(
                relation_interface, charm.meta.name
            )
        )

        super().__init__(self.message)


class MultipleRelationsWithInterfaceFoundError(Exception):
    """Multiple relations with the given interface are found in the charm meta."""

    def __init__(self, charm: CharmBase, relation_interface: str, relations: list):
        self.charm = charm
        self.relation_interface = relation_interface
        self.relations = relations
        self.message = (
            "Multiple relations with interface '{}' found in the meta of the '{}' charm.".format(
                relation_interface, charm.meta.name
            )
        )
        super().__init__(self.message)


class LokiPushApiEndpointDeparted(EventBase):
    """Event emitted when Loki departed."""


class LokiPushApiEndpointJoined(EventBase):
    """Event emitted when Loki joined."""


class LokiPushApiAlertRulesChanged(EventBase):
    """Event emitted if there is a change in the alert rules."""

    def __init__(self, handle, relation, relation_id, app=None, unit=None):
        """Pretend we are almost like a RelationEvent.

        Fields to serialize:
            {
                "relation_name": <a relation name as a string>,
                "relation_id": <a relation id, optional>,
                "app_name": <app name as a string>,
                "unit_name": <unit name as a string>
            }

        In this way, we can transparently use `RelationEvent.snapshot()` to pass
        it back if we need to log it.
        """
        super().__init__(handle)
        self.relation = relation
        self.relation_id = relation_id
        self.app = app
        self.unit = unit

    def snapshot(self) -> Dict:
        """Save event information."""
        if not self.relation:
            return {}
        snapshot = {"relation_name": self.relation.name, "relation_id": self.relation.id}
        if self.app:
            snapshot["app_name"] = self.app.name
        if self.unit:
            snapshot["unit_name"] = self.unit.name
        return snapshot

    def restore(self, snapshot: dict):
        """Restore event information."""
        self.relation = self.framework.model.get_relation(
            snapshot["relation_name"], snapshot["relation_id"]
        )
        app_name = snapshot.get("app_name")
        if app_name:
            self.app = self.framework.model.get_app(app_name)
        else:
            self.app = None
        unit_name = snapshot.get("unit_name")
        if unit_name:
            self.unit = self.framework.model.get_unit(unit_name)
        else:
            self.unit = None


class InvalidAlertRuleEvent(EventBase):
    """Event emitted when alert rule files are not parsable.

    Enables us to set a clear status on the provider.
    """

    def __init__(self, handle, errors: str = "", valid: bool = False):
        super().__init__(handle)
        self.errors = errors
        self.valid = valid

    def snapshot(self) -> Dict:
        """Save alert rule information."""
        return {
            "valid": self.valid,
            "errors": self.errors,
        }

    def restore(self, snapshot):
        """Restore alert rule information."""
        self.valid = snapshot["valid"]
        self.errors = snapshot["errors"]


class LokiPushApiEvents(ObjectEvents):
    """Event descriptor for events raised by `LokiPushApiProvider`."""

    loki_push_api_endpoint_departed = EventSource(LokiPushApiEndpointDeparted)
    loki_push_api_endpoint_joined = EventSource(LokiPushApiEndpointJoined)
    loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed = EventSource(LokiPushApiAlertRulesChanged)
    alert_rule_status_changed = EventSource(InvalidAlertRuleEvent)


class LokiPushApiProvider(Object):
    """A LokiPushApiProvider class."""

    on = LokiPushApiEvents()  # pyright: ignore

    def __init__(
        self,
        charm,
        relation_name: str = DEFAULT_RELATION_NAME,
        *,
        port: Union[str, int] = 3100,
        scheme: str = "http",
        address: str = "localhost",
        path: str = "loki/api/v1/push",
    ):
        """A Loki service provider.

        Args:
            charm: a `CharmBase` instance that manages this
                instance of the Loki service.
            relation_name: an optional string name of the relation between `charm`
                and the Loki charmed service. The default is "logging".
                It is strongly advised not to change the default, so that people
                deploying your charm will have a consistent experience with all
                other charms that consume metrics endpoints.
            port: an optional port of the Loki service (default is "3100").
            scheme: an optional scheme of the Loki API URL (default is "http").
            address: an optional address of the Loki service (default is "localhost").
            path: an optional path of the Loki API URL (default is "loki/api/v1/push")

        Raises:
            RelationNotFoundError: If there is no relation in the charm's metadata.yaml
                with the same name as provided via `relation_name` argument.
            RelationInterfaceMismatchError: The relation with the same name as provided
                via `relation_name` argument does not have the `loki_push_api` relation
                interface.
            RelationRoleMismatchError: If the relation with the same name as provided
                via `relation_name` argument does not have the `RelationRole.requires`
                role.
        """
        _validate_relation_by_interface_and_direction(
            charm, relation_name, RELATION_INTERFACE_NAME, RelationRole.provides
        )
        super().__init__(charm, relation_name)
        self._charm = charm
        self._relation_name = relation_name
        self._tool = CosTool(self)
        self.port = int(port)
        self.scheme = scheme
        self.address = address
        self.path = path

        events = self._charm.on[relation_name]
        self.framework.observe(self._charm.on.upgrade_charm, self._on_lifecycle_event)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_joined, self._on_logging_relation_joined)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_changed, self._on_logging_relation_changed)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_departed, self._on_logging_relation_departed)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_broken, self._on_logging_relation_broken)

    def _on_lifecycle_event(self, _):
        # Upgrade event or other charm-level event
        should_update = False
        for relation in self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
            # Don't accidentally flip a True result back.
            should_update = should_update or self._process_logging_relation_changed(relation)
        if should_update:
            # We don't have a RelationEvent, so build it up by hand
            first_rel = self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name][0]
            self.on.loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed.emit(
                relation=first_rel,
                relation_id=first_rel.id,
            )

    def _on_logging_relation_joined(self, event: RelationJoinedEvent):
        """Set basic data on relation joins.

        Set the promtail binary URL location, which will not change, and anything
        else which may be required, but is static..

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the consumer
                charm must set its relation data.
        """
        if self._charm.unit.is_leader():
            event.relation.data[self._charm.app].update(self._promtail_binary_url)
            logger.debug("Saved promtail binary url: %s", self._promtail_binary_url)

    def _on_logging_relation_changed(self, event: HookEvent):
        """Handle changes in related consumers.

        Anytime there are changes in the relation between Loki
        and its consumers charms.

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the consumer
                charm must update its relation data.
        """
        should_update = self._process_logging_relation_changed(event.relation)  # pyright: ignore
        if should_update:
            self.on.loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed.emit(
                relation=event.relation,  # pyright: ignore
                relation_id=event.relation.id,  # pyright: ignore
                app=self._charm.app,
                unit=self._charm.unit,
            )

    def _on_logging_relation_broken(self, event: RelationBrokenEvent):
        """Removes alert rules files when consumer charms left the relation with Loki.

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the Loki
                charm must update its relation data.
        """
        self.on.loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed.emit(
            relation=event.relation,
            relation_id=event.relation.id,
            app=self._charm.app,
            unit=self._charm.unit,
        )

    def _on_logging_relation_departed(self, event: RelationDepartedEvent):
        """Removes alert rules files when consumer charms left the relation with Loki.

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the Loki
                charm must update its relation data.
        """
        self.on.loki_push_api_alert_rules_changed.emit(
            relation=event.relation,
            relation_id=event.relation.id,
            app=self._charm.app,
            unit=self._charm.unit,
        )

    def _should_update_alert_rules(self, relation) -> bool:
        """Determine whether alert rules should be regenerated.

        If there are alert rules in the relation data bag, tell the charm
        whether to regenerate them based on the boolean returned here.
        """
        if relation.data.get(relation.app).get("alert_rules", None) is not None:
            return True
        return False

    def _process_logging_relation_changed(self, relation: Relation) -> bool:
        """Handle changes in related consumers.

        Anytime there are changes in relations between Loki
        and its consumers charms, Loki set the `loki_push_api`
        into the relation data. Set the endpoint building
        appropriately, and if there are alert rules present in
        the relation, let the caller know.
        Besides Loki generates alert rules files based what
        consumer charms forwards,

        Args:
            relation: the `Relation` instance to update.

        Returns:
            A boolean indicating whether an event should be emitted, so we
            only emit one on lifecycle events
        """
        relation.data[self._charm.unit]["public_address"] = socket.getfqdn() or ""
        self.update_endpoint(relation=relation)
        return self._should_update_alert_rules(relation)

    @property
    def _promtail_binary_url(self) -> dict:
        """URL from which Promtail binary can be downloaded."""
        # construct promtail binary url paths from parts
        promtail_binaries = {}
        for arch, info in PROMTAIL_BINARIES.items():
            info["url"] = "{}/promtail-{}/{}.gz".format(
                PROMTAIL_BASE_URL, PROMTAIL_VERSION, info["filename"]
            )
            promtail_binaries[arch] = info

        return {"promtail_binary_zip_url": json.dumps(promtail_binaries)}

    def update_endpoint(self, url: str = "", relation: Optional[Relation] = None) -> None:
        """Triggers programmatically the update of endpoint in unit relation data.

        This method should be used when the charm relying on this library needs
        to update the relation data in response to something occurring outside
        the `logging` relation lifecycle, e.g., in case of a
        host address change because the charmed operator becomes connected to an
        Ingress after the `logging` relation is established.

        Args:
            url: An optional url value to update relation data.
            relation: An optional instance of `class:ops.model.Relation` to update.
        """
        # if no relation is specified update all of them
        if not relation:
            if not self._charm.model.relations.get(self._relation_name):
                return

            relations_list = self._charm.model.relations.get(self._relation_name)
        else:
            relations_list = [relation]

        endpoint = self._endpoint(url or self._url)

        for relation in relations_list:
            relation.data[self._charm.unit].update({"endpoint": json.dumps(endpoint)})

        logger.debug("Saved endpoint in unit relation data")

    @property
    def _url(self) -> str:
        """Get local Loki Push API url.

        Return url to loki, including port number, but without the endpoint subpath.
        """
        return "http://{}:{}".format(socket.getfqdn(), self.port)

    def _endpoint(self, url) -> dict:
        """Get Loki push API endpoint for a given url.

        Args:
            url: A loki unit URL.

        Returns: str
        """
        endpoint = "/loki/api/v1/push"
        return {"url": url.rstrip("/") + endpoint}

    @property
    def alerts(self) -> dict:  # noqa: C901
        """Fetch alerts for all relations.

        A Loki alert rules file consists of a list of "groups". Each
        group consists of a list of alerts (`rules`) that are sequentially
        executed. This method returns all the alert rules provided by each
        related metrics provider charm. These rules may be used to generate a
        separate alert rules file for each relation since the returned list
        of alert groups are indexed by relation ID. Also for each relation ID
        associated scrape metadata such as Juju model, UUID and application
        name are provided so a unique name may be generated for the rules
        file. For each relation the structure of data returned is a dictionary
        with four keys

        - groups
        - model
        - model_uuid
        - application

        The value of the `groups` key is such that it may be used to generate
        a Loki alert rules file directly using `yaml.dump` but the
        `groups` key itself must be included as this is required by Loki,
        for example as in `yaml.dump({"groups": alerts["groups"]})`.

        Currently only accepts a list of rules and these
        rules are all placed into a single group, even though Loki itself
        allows for multiple groups within a single alert rules file.

        Returns:
            a dictionary of alert rule groups and associated scrape
            metadata indexed by relation ID.
        """
        alerts = {}  # type: Dict[str, dict] # mapping b/w juju identifiers and alert rule files
        for relation in self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
            if not relation.units or not relation.app:
                continue

            alert_rules = json.loads(relation.data[relation.app].get("alert_rules", "{}"))
            if not alert_rules:
                continue

            alert_rules = self._inject_alert_expr_labels(alert_rules)

            identifier, topology = self._get_identifier_by_alert_rules(alert_rules)
            if not topology:
                try:
                    metadata = json.loads(relation.data[relation.app]["metadata"])
                    identifier = JujuTopology.from_dict(metadata).identifier
                    alerts[identifier] = self._tool.apply_label_matchers(alert_rules)  # type: ignore

                except KeyError as e:
                    logger.debug(
                        "Relation %s has no 'metadata': %s",
                        relation.id,
                        e,
                    )

            if not identifier:
                logger.error(
                    "Alert rules were found but no usable group or identifier was present."
                )
                continue

            _, errmsg = self._tool.validate_alert_rules(alert_rules)
            if errmsg:
                relation.data[self._charm.app]["event"] = json.dumps({"errors": errmsg})
                continue

            alerts[identifier] = alert_rules

        return alerts

    def _get_identifier_by_alert_rules(
        self, rules: dict
    ) -> Tuple[Union[str, None], Union[JujuTopology, None]]:
        """Determine an appropriate dict key for alert rules.

        The key is used as the filename when writing alerts to disk, so the structure
        and uniqueness is important.

        Args:
            rules: a dict of alert rules
        Returns:
            A tuple containing an identifier, if found, and a JujuTopology, if it could
            be constructed.
        """
        if "groups" not in rules:
            logger.debug("No alert groups were found in relation data")
            return None, None

        # Construct an ID based on what's in the alert rules if they have labels
        for group in rules["groups"]:
            try:
                labels = group["rules"][0]["labels"]
                topology = JujuTopology(
                    # Don't try to safely get required constructor fields. There's already
                    # a handler for KeyErrors
                    model_uuid=labels["juju_model_uuid"],
                    model=labels["juju_model"],
                    application=labels["juju_application"],
                    unit=labels.get("juju_unit", ""),
                    charm_name=labels.get("juju_charm", ""),
                )
                return topology.identifier, topology
            except KeyError:
                logger.debug("Alert rules were found but no usable labels were present")
                continue

        logger.warning(
            "No labeled alert rules were found, and no 'scrape_metadata' "
            "was available. Using the alert group name as filename."
        )
        try:
            for group in rules["groups"]:
                return group["name"], None
        except KeyError:
            logger.debug("No group name was found to use as identifier")

        return None, None

    def _inject_alert_expr_labels(self, rules: Dict[str, Any]) -> Dict[str, Any]:
        """Iterate through alert rules and inject topology into expressions.

        Args:
            rules: a dict of alert rules
        """
        if "groups" not in rules:
            return rules

        modified_groups = []
        for group in rules["groups"]:
            # Copy off rules, so we don't modify an object we're iterating over
            rules_copy = group["rules"]
            for idx, rule in enumerate(rules_copy):
                labels = rule.get("labels")

                if labels:
                    try:
                        topology = JujuTopology(
                            # Don't try to safely get required constructor fields. There's already
                            # a handler for KeyErrors
                            model_uuid=labels["juju_model_uuid"],
                            model=labels["juju_model"],
                            application=labels["juju_application"],
                            unit=labels.get("juju_unit", ""),
                            charm_name=labels.get("juju_charm", ""),
                        )

                        # Inject topology and put it back in the list
                        rule["expr"] = self._tool.inject_label_matchers(
                            re.sub(r"%%juju_topology%%,?", "", rule["expr"]),
                            topology.label_matcher_dict,
                        )
                    except KeyError:
                        # Some required JujuTopology key is missing. Just move on.
                        pass

                    group["rules"][idx] = rule

            modified_groups.append(group)

        rules["groups"] = modified_groups
        return rules


class ConsumerBase(Object):
    """Consumer's base class."""

    def __init__(
        self,
        charm: CharmBase,
        relation_name: str = DEFAULT_RELATION_NAME,
        alert_rules_path: str = DEFAULT_ALERT_RULES_RELATIVE_PATH,
        recursive: bool = False,
        skip_alert_topology_labeling: bool = False,
    ):
        super().__init__(charm, relation_name)
        self._charm = charm
        self._relation_name = relation_name
        self.topology = JujuTopology.from_charm(charm)

        try:
            alert_rules_path = _resolve_dir_against_charm_path(charm, alert_rules_path)
        except InvalidAlertRulePathError as e:
            logger.debug(
                "Invalid Loki alert rules folder at %s: %s",
                e.alert_rules_absolute_path,
                e.message,
            )
        self._alert_rules_path = alert_rules_path
        self._skip_alert_topology_labeling = skip_alert_topology_labeling

        self._recursive = recursive

    def _handle_alert_rules(self, relation):
        if not self._charm.unit.is_leader():
            return

        alert_rules = (
            AlertRules(None) if self._skip_alert_topology_labeling else AlertRules(self.topology)
        )
        alert_rules.add_path(self._alert_rules_path, recursive=self._recursive)
        alert_rules_as_dict = alert_rules.as_dict()

        relation.data[self._charm.app]["metadata"] = json.dumps(self.topology.as_dict())
        relation.data[self._charm.app]["alert_rules"] = json.dumps(
            alert_rules_as_dict,
            sort_keys=True,  # sort, to prevent unnecessary relation_changed events
        )

    @property
    def loki_endpoints(self) -> List[dict]:
        """Fetch Loki Push API endpoints sent from LokiPushApiProvider through relation data.

        Returns:
            A list of dictionaries with Loki Push API endpoints, for instance:
            [
                {"url": "http://loki1:3100/loki/api/v1/push"},
                {"url": "http://loki2:3100/loki/api/v1/push"},
            ]
        """
        endpoints = []  # type: list

        for relation in self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
            for unit in relation.units:
                if unit.app == self._charm.app:
                    # This is a peer unit
                    continue

                endpoint = relation.data[unit].get("endpoint")
                if endpoint:
                    deserialized_endpoint = json.loads(endpoint)
                    endpoints.append(deserialized_endpoint)

        return endpoints


class LokiPushApiConsumer(ConsumerBase):
    """Loki Consumer class."""

    on = LokiPushApiEvents()  # pyright: ignore

    def __init__(
        self,
        charm: CharmBase,
        relation_name: str = DEFAULT_RELATION_NAME,
        alert_rules_path: str = DEFAULT_ALERT_RULES_RELATIVE_PATH,
        recursive: bool = True,
        skip_alert_topology_labeling: bool = False,
    ):
        """Construct a Loki charm client.

        The `LokiPushApiConsumer` object provides configurations to a Loki client charm, such as
        the Loki API endpoint to push logs. It is intended for workloads that can speak
        loki_push_api (https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/api/#push-log-entries-to-loki), such
        as grafana-agent.
        (If you need to forward workload stdout logs, then use LogForwarder; if you need to forward
        log files, then use LogProxyConsumer.)

        `LokiPushApiConsumer` can be instantiated as follows:

            self._loki_consumer = LokiPushApiConsumer(self)

        Args:
            charm: a `CharmBase` object that manages this `LokiPushApiConsumer` object.
                Typically, this is `self` in the instantiating class.
            relation_name: the string name of the relation interface to look up.
                If `charm` has exactly one relation with this interface, the relation's
                name is returned. If none or multiple relations with the provided interface
                are found, this method will raise either a NoRelationWithInterfaceFoundError or
                MultipleRelationsWithInterfaceFoundError exception, respectively.
            alert_rules_path: a string indicating a path where alert rules can be found
            recursive: Whether to scan for rule files recursively.
            skip_alert_topology_labeling: whether to skip the alert topology labeling.

        Raises:
            RelationNotFoundError: If there is no relation in the charm's metadata.yaml
                with the same name as provided via `relation_name` argument.
            RelationInterfaceMismatchError: The relation with the same name as provided
                via `relation_name` argument does not have the `loki_push_api` relation
                interface.
            RelationRoleMismatchError: If the relation with the same name as provided
                via `relation_name` argument does not have the `RelationRole.provides`
                role.

        Emits:
            loki_push_api_endpoint_joined: This event is emitted when the relation between the
                Charmed Operator that instantiates `LokiPushApiProvider` (Loki charm for instance)
                and the Charmed Operator that instantiates `LokiPushApiConsumer` is established.
            loki_push_api_endpoint_departed: This event is emitted when the relation between the
                Charmed Operator that implements `LokiPushApiProvider` (Loki charm for instance)
                and the Charmed Operator that implements `LokiPushApiConsumer` is removed.
            loki_push_api_alert_rules_error: This event is emitted when an invalid alert rules
                file is encountered or if `alert_rules_path` is empty.
        """
        _validate_relation_by_interface_and_direction(
            charm, relation_name, RELATION_INTERFACE_NAME, RelationRole.requires
        )
        super().__init__(
            charm, relation_name, alert_rules_path, recursive, skip_alert_topology_labeling
        )
        events = self._charm.on[relation_name]
        self.framework.observe(self._charm.on.upgrade_charm, self._on_lifecycle_event)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_joined, self._on_logging_relation_joined)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_changed, self._on_logging_relation_changed)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_departed, self._on_logging_relation_departed)

    def _on_lifecycle_event(self, _: HookEvent):
        """Update require relation data on charm upgrades and other lifecycle events.

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the consumer
                charm must update its relation data.
        """
        # Upgrade event or other charm-level event
        self._reinitialize_alert_rules()
        self.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_joined.emit()

    def _on_logging_relation_joined(self, event: RelationJoinedEvent):
        """Handle changes in related consumers.

        Update relation data and emit events when a relation is established.

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the consumer
                charm must update its relation data.

        Emits:
            loki_push_api_endpoint_joined: Once the relation is established, this event is emitted.
            loki_push_api_alert_rules_error: This event is emitted when an invalid alert rules
                file is encountered or if `alert_rules_path` is empty.
        """
        # Alert rules will not change over the lifecycle of a charm, and do not need to be
        # constantly set on every relation_changed event. Leave them here.
        self._handle_alert_rules(event.relation)
        self.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_joined.emit()

    def _on_logging_relation_changed(self, event: RelationEvent):
        """Handle changes in related consumers.

        Anytime there are changes in the relation between Loki
        and its consumers charms.

        Args:
            event: a `CharmEvent` in response to which the consumer
                charm must update its relation data.

        Emits:
            loki_push_api_endpoint_joined: Once the relation is established, this event is emitted.
            loki_push_api_alert_rules_error: This event is emitted when an invalid alert rules
                file is encountered or if `alert_rules_path` is empty.
        """
        if self._charm.unit.is_leader():
            ev = json.loads(event.relation.data[event.app].get("event", "{}"))

            if ev:
                valid = bool(ev.get("valid", True))
                errors = ev.get("errors", "")

                if valid and not errors:
                    self.on.alert_rule_status_changed.emit(valid=valid)
                else:
                    self.on.alert_rule_status_changed.emit(valid=valid, errors=errors)

        self.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_joined.emit()

    def _reinitialize_alert_rules(self):
        """Reloads alert rules and updates all relations."""
        for relation in self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
            self._handle_alert_rules(relation)

    def _process_logging_relation_changed(self, relation: Relation):
        self._handle_alert_rules(relation)
        self.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_joined.emit()

    def _on_logging_relation_departed(self, _: RelationEvent):
        """Handle departures in related providers.

        Anytime there are departures in relations between the consumer charm and Loki
        the consumer charm is informed, through a `LokiPushApiEndpointDeparted` event.
        The consumer charm can then choose to update its configuration.
        """
        # Provide default to avoid throwing, as in some complicated scenarios with
        # upgrades and hook failures we might not have data in the storage
        self.on.loki_push_api_endpoint_departed.emit()


class ContainerNotFoundError(Exception):
    """Raised if the specified container does not exist."""

    def __init__(self):
        msg = "The specified container does not exist."
        self.message = msg

        super().__init__(self.message)


class PromtailDigestError(EventBase):
    """Event emitted when there is an error with Promtail initialization."""

    def __init__(self, handle, message):
        super().__init__(handle)
        self.message = message

    def snapshot(self):
        """Save message information."""
        return {"message": self.message}

    def restore(self, snapshot):
        """Restore message information."""
        self.message = snapshot["message"]


class LogProxyEndpointDeparted(EventBase):
    """Event emitted when a Log Proxy has departed."""


class LogProxyEndpointJoined(EventBase):
    """Event emitted when a Log Proxy joins."""


class LogProxyEvents(ObjectEvents):
    """Event descriptor for events raised by `LogProxyConsumer`."""

    promtail_digest_error = EventSource(PromtailDigestError)
    log_proxy_endpoint_departed = EventSource(LogProxyEndpointDeparted)
    log_proxy_endpoint_joined = EventSource(LogProxyEndpointJoined)


class LogProxyConsumer(ConsumerBase):
    """LogProxyConsumer class.

    > Note: This object is deprecated. Consider migrating to LogForwarder with the release of Juju
    > 3.6 LTS.

    The `LogProxyConsumer` object provides a method for attaching `promtail` to
    a workload in order to generate structured logging data from applications
    which traditionally log to syslog or do not have native Loki integration.
    The `LogProxyConsumer` can be instantiated as follows:

        self._log_proxy = LogProxyConsumer(
            self,
            logs_scheme={
                "workload-a": {
                    "log-files": ["/tmp/worload-a-1.log", "/tmp/worload-a-2.log"],
                    "syslog-port": 1514,
                },
                "workload-b": {"log-files": ["/tmp/worload-b.log"], "syslog-port": 1515},
            },
            relation_name="log-proxy",
        )

    Args:
        charm: a `CharmBase` object that manages this `LokiPushApiConsumer` object.
            Typically, this is `self` in the instantiating class.
        logs_scheme: a dict which maps containers and a list of log files and syslog port.
        relation_name: the string name of the relation interface to look up.
            If `charm` has exactly one relation with this interface, the relation's
            name is returned. If none or multiple relations with the provided interface
            are found, this method will raise either a NoRelationWithInterfaceFoundError or
            MultipleRelationsWithInterfaceFoundError exception, respectively.
        containers_syslog_port: a dict which maps (and enable) containers and syslog port.
        alert_rules_path: an optional path for the location of alert rules
            files. Defaults to "./src/loki_alert_rules",
            resolved from the directory hosting the charm entry file.
            The alert rules are automatically updated on charm upgrade.
        recursive: Whether to scan for rule files recursively.
        promtail_resource_name: An optional promtail resource name from metadata
            if it has been modified and attached
        insecure_skip_verify: skip SSL verification.

    Raises:
        RelationNotFoundError: If there is no relation in the charm's metadata.yaml
            with the same name as provided via `relation_name` argument.
        RelationInterfaceMismatchError: The relation with the same name as provided
            via `relation_name` argument does not have the `loki_push_api` relation
            interface.
        RelationRoleMismatchError: If the relation with the same name as provided
            via `relation_name` argument does not have the `RelationRole.provides`
            role.
    """

    on = LogProxyEvents()  # pyright: ignore

    def __init__(
        self,
        charm,
        *,
        logs_scheme=None,
        relation_name: str = DEFAULT_LOG_PROXY_RELATION_NAME,
        alert_rules_path: str = DEFAULT_ALERT_RULES_RELATIVE_PATH,
        recursive: bool = False,
        promtail_resource_name: Optional[str] = None,
        insecure_skip_verify: bool = False,
    ):
        super().__init__(charm, relation_name, alert_rules_path, recursive)
        self._charm = charm
        self._logs_scheme = logs_scheme or {}
        self._relation_name = relation_name
        self.topology = JujuTopology.from_charm(charm)
        self._promtail_resource_name = promtail_resource_name or "promtail-bin"
        self.insecure_skip_verify = insecure_skip_verify
        self._promtails_ports = self._generate_promtails_ports(logs_scheme)

        # architecture used for promtail binary
        arch = platform.processor()
        if arch in ["x86_64", "amd64"]:
            self._arch = "amd64"
        elif arch in ["aarch64", "arm64", "armv8b", "armv8l"]:
            self._arch = "arm64"
        else:
            self._arch = arch

        events = self._charm.on[relation_name]
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_created, self._on_relation_created)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_changed, self._on_relation_changed)
        self.framework.observe(events.relation_departed, self._on_relation_departed)
        self._observe_pebble_ready()

    def _observe_pebble_ready(self):
        for container in self._containers.keys():
            snake_case_container_name = container.replace("-", "_")
            self.framework.observe(
                getattr(self._charm.on, f"{snake_case_container_name}_pebble_ready"),
                self._on_pebble_ready,
            )

    def _on_pebble_ready(self, event: WorkloadEvent):
        """Event handler for `pebble_ready`."""
        if self.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
            self._setup_promtail(event.workload)

    def _on_relation_created(self, _: RelationCreatedEvent) -> None:
        """Event handler for `relation_created`."""
        for container in self._containers.values():
            if container.can_connect():
                self._setup_promtail(container)

    def _on_relation_changed(self, event: RelationEvent) -> None:
        """Event handler for `relation_changed`.

        Args:
            event: The event object `RelationChangedEvent`.
        """
        self._handle_alert_rules(event.relation)

        if self._charm.unit.is_leader():
            ev = json.loads(event.relation.data[event.app].get("event", "{}"))

            if ev:
                valid = bool(ev.get("valid", True))
                errors = ev.get("errors", "")

                if valid and not errors:
                    self.on.alert_rule_status_changed.emit(valid=valid)
                else:
                    self.on.alert_rule_status_changed.emit(valid=valid, errors=errors)

        for container in self._containers.values():
            if not container.can_connect():
                continue
            if self.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
                if "promtail" not in container.get_plan().services:
                    self._setup_promtail(container)
                    continue

                new_config = self._promtail_config(container.name)
                if new_config != self._current_config(container):
                    container.push(
                        WORKLOAD_CONFIG_PATH, yaml.safe_dump(new_config), make_dirs=True
                    )

                # Loki may send endpoints late. Don't necessarily start, there may be
                # no clients
                if new_config["clients"]:
                    container.restart(WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME)
                    self.on.log_proxy_endpoint_joined.emit()
                else:
                    self.on.promtail_digest_error.emit("No promtail client endpoints available!")

    def _on_relation_departed(self, _: RelationEvent) -> None:
        """Event handler for `relation_departed`.

        Args:
            event: The event object `RelationDepartedEvent`.
        """
        for container in self._containers.values():
            if not container.can_connect():
                continue
            if not self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
                container.stop(WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME)
                continue

            new_config = self._promtail_config(container.name)
            if new_config != self._current_config(container):
                container.push(WORKLOAD_CONFIG_PATH, yaml.safe_dump(new_config), make_dirs=True)

            if new_config["clients"]:
                container.restart(WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME)
            else:
                container.stop(WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME)
            self.on.log_proxy_endpoint_departed.emit()

    def _add_pebble_layer(self, workload_binary_path: str, container: Container) -> None:
        """Adds Pebble layer that manages Promtail service in Workload container.

        Args:
            workload_binary_path: string providing path to promtail binary in workload container.
            container: container into which the layer is to be added.
        """
        pebble_layer = Layer(
            {
                "summary": "promtail layer",
                "description": "pebble config layer for promtail",
                "services": {
                    WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME: {
                        "override": "replace",
                        "summary": WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME,
                        "command": f"{workload_binary_path} {self._cli_args}",
                        "startup": "disabled",
                    }
                },
            }
        )
        container.add_layer(container.name, pebble_layer, combine=True)

    def _create_directories(self, container: Container) -> None:
        """Creates the directories for Promtail binary and config file."""
        container.make_dir(path=WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR, make_parents=True)
        container.make_dir(path=WORKLOAD_CONFIG_DIR, make_parents=True)

    def _obtain_promtail(self, promtail_info: dict, container: Container) -> None:
        """Obtain promtail binary from an attached resource or download it.

        Args:
            promtail_info: dictionary containing information about promtail binary
               that must be used. The dictionary must have three keys
               - "filename": filename of promtail binary
               - "zipsha": sha256 sum of zip file of promtail binary
               - "binsha": sha256 sum of unpacked promtail binary
            container: container into which promtail is to be obtained.
        """
        workload_binary_path = os.path.join(WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR, promtail_info["filename"])
        if self._promtail_attached_as_resource:
            self._push_promtail_if_attached(container, workload_binary_path)
            return

        if self._promtail_must_be_downloaded(promtail_info):
            self._download_and_push_promtail_to_workload(container, promtail_info)
        else:
            binary_path = os.path.join(BINARY_DIR, promtail_info["filename"])
            self._push_binary_to_workload(container, binary_path, workload_binary_path)

    def _push_binary_to_workload(
        self, container: Container, binary_path: str, workload_binary_path: str
    ) -> None:
        """Push promtail binary into workload container.

        Args:
            binary_path: path in charm container from which promtail binary is read.
            workload_binary_path: path in workload container to which promtail binary is pushed.
            container: container into which promtail is to be uploaded.
        """
        with open(binary_path, "rb") as f:
            container.push(workload_binary_path, f, permissions=0o755, make_dirs=True)
            logger.debug("The promtail binary file has been pushed to the workload container.")

    @property
    def _promtail_attached_as_resource(self) -> bool:
        """Checks whether Promtail binary is attached to the charm or not.

        Returns:
            a boolean representing whether Promtail binary is attached as a resource or not.
        """
        try:
            self._charm.model.resources.fetch(self._promtail_resource_name)
            return True
        except ModelError:
            return False
        except NameError as e:
            if "invalid resource name" in str(e):
                return False
            raise

    def _push_promtail_if_attached(self, container: Container, workload_binary_path: str) -> bool:
        """Checks whether Promtail binary is attached to the charm or not.

        Args:
            workload_binary_path: string specifying expected path of promtail
                in workload container
            container: container into which promtail is to be pushed.

        Returns:
            a boolean representing whether Promtail binary is attached or not.
        """
        logger.info("Promtail binary file has been obtained from an attached resource.")
        resource_path = self._charm.model.resources.fetch(self._promtail_resource_name)
        self._push_binary_to_workload(container, resource_path, workload_binary_path)
        return True

    def _promtail_must_be_downloaded(self, promtail_info: dict) -> bool:
        """Checks whether promtail binary must be downloaded or not.

        Args:
            promtail_info: dictionary containing information about promtail binary
               that must be used. The dictionary must have three keys
               - "filename": filename of promtail binary
               - "zipsha": sha256 sum of zip file of promtail binary
               - "binsha": sha256 sum of unpacked promtail binary

        Returns:
            a boolean representing whether Promtail binary must be downloaded or not.
        """
        binary_path = os.path.join(BINARY_DIR, promtail_info["filename"])
        if not self._is_promtail_binary_in_charm(binary_path):
            return True

        if not self._sha256sums_matches(binary_path, promtail_info["binsha"]):
            return True

        logger.debug("Promtail binary file is already in the the charm container.")
        return False

    def _sha256sums_matches(self, file_path: str, sha256sum: str) -> bool:
        """Checks whether a file's sha256sum matches or not with a specific sha256sum.

        Args:
            file_path: A string representing the files' patch.
            sha256sum: The sha256sum against which we want to verify.

        Returns:
            a boolean representing whether a file's sha256sum matches or not with
            a specific sha256sum.
        """
        try:
            with open(file_path, "rb") as f:
                file_bytes = f.read()
                result = sha256(file_bytes).hexdigest()

                if result != sha256sum:
                    msg = "File sha256sum mismatch, expected:'{}' but got '{}'".format(
                        sha256sum, result
                    )
                    logger.debug(msg)
                    return False

                return True
        except (APIError, FileNotFoundError):
            msg = "File: '{}' could not be opened".format(file_path)
            logger.error(msg)
            return False

    def _is_promtail_binary_in_charm(self, binary_path: str) -> bool:
        """Check if Promtail binary is already stored in charm container.

        Args:
            binary_path: string path of promtail binary to check

        Returns:
            a boolean representing whether Promtail is present or not.
        """
        return True if Path(binary_path).is_file() else False

    def _download_and_push_promtail_to_workload(
        self, container: Container, promtail_info: dict
    ) -> None:
        """Downloads a Promtail zip file and pushes the binary to the workload.

        Args:
            promtail_info: dictionary containing information about promtail binary
               that must be used. The dictionary must have three keys
               - "filename": filename of promtail binary
               - "zipsha": sha256 sum of zip file of promtail binary
               - "binsha": sha256 sum of unpacked promtail binary
            container: container into which promtail is to be uploaded.
        """
        # Check for Juju proxy variables and fall back to standard ones if not set
        # If no Juju proxy variable was set, we set proxies to None to let the ProxyHandler get
        # the proxy env variables from the environment
        proxies = {
            # The ProxyHandler uses only the protocol names as keys
            # https://docs.python.org/3/library/urllib.request.html#urllib.request.ProxyHandler
            "https": os.environ.get("JUJU_CHARM_HTTPS_PROXY", ""),
            "http": os.environ.get("JUJU_CHARM_HTTP_PROXY", ""),
            # The ProxyHandler uses `no` for the no_proxy key
            # https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/3.12/Lib/urllib/request.py#L2553
            "no": os.environ.get("JUJU_CHARM_NO_PROXY", ""),
        }
        proxies = {k: v for k, v in proxies.items() if v != ""} or None

        proxy_handler = request.ProxyHandler(proxies)
        opener = request.build_opener(proxy_handler)

        with opener.open(promtail_info["url"]) as r:
            file_bytes = r.read()
            file_path = os.path.join(BINARY_DIR, promtail_info["filename"] + ".gz")
            with open(file_path, "wb") as f:
                f.write(file_bytes)
                logger.info(
                    "Promtail binary zip file has been downloaded and stored in: %s",
                    file_path,
                )

            decompressed_file = GzipFile(fileobj=BytesIO(file_bytes))
            binary_path = os.path.join(BINARY_DIR, promtail_info["filename"])
            with open(binary_path, "wb") as outfile:
                outfile.write(decompressed_file.read())
                logger.debug("Promtail binary file has been downloaded.")

        workload_binary_path = os.path.join(WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR, promtail_info["filename"])
        self._push_binary_to_workload(container, binary_path, workload_binary_path)

    @property
    def _cli_args(self) -> str:
        """Return the cli arguments to pass to promtail.

        Returns:
            The arguments as a string
        """
        return "-config.file={}".format(WORKLOAD_CONFIG_PATH)

    def _current_config(self, container) -> dict:
        """Property that returns the current Promtail configuration.

        Returns:
            A dict containing Promtail configuration.
        """
        if not container.can_connect():
            logger.debug("Could not connect to promtail container!")
            return {}
        try:
            raw_current = container.pull(WORKLOAD_CONFIG_PATH).read()
            return yaml.safe_load(raw_current)
        except (ProtocolError, PathError) as e:
            logger.warning(
                "Could not check the current promtail configuration due to "
                "a failure in retrieving the file: %s",
                e,
            )
            return {}

    def _promtail_config(self, container_name: str) -> dict:
        """Generates the config file for Promtail.

        Reference: https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/send-data/promtail/configuration
        """
        config = {"clients": self._clients_list()}
        if self.insecure_skip_verify:
            for client in config["clients"]:
                client["tls_config"] = {"insecure_skip_verify": True}

        config.update(self._server_config(container_name))
        config.update(self._positions)
        config.update(self._scrape_configs(container_name))
        return config

    def _clients_list(self) -> list:
        """Generates a list of clients for use in the promtail config.

        Returns:
            A list of endpoints
        """
        return self.loki_endpoints

    def _server_config(self, container_name: str) -> dict:
        """Generates the server section of the Promtail config file.

        Returns:
            A dict representing the `server` section.
        """
        return {
            "server": {
                "http_listen_port": self._promtails_ports[container_name]["http_listen_port"],
                "grpc_listen_port": self._promtails_ports[container_name]["grpc_listen_port"],
            }
        }

    @property
    def _positions(self) -> dict:
        """Generates the positions section of the Promtail config file.

        Returns:
            A dict representing the `positions` section.
        """
        return {"positions": {"filename": WORKLOAD_POSITIONS_PATH}}

    def _scrape_configs(self, container_name: str) -> dict:
        """Generates the scrape_configs section of the Promtail config file.

        Returns:
            A dict representing the `scrape_configs` section.
        """
        job_name = f"juju_{self.topology.identifier}"

        # The new JujuTopology doesn't include unit, but LogProxyConsumer should have it
        common_labels = {
            f"juju_{k}": v
            for k, v in self.topology.as_dict(remapped_keys={"charm_name": "charm"}).items()
        }
        common_labels["container"] = container_name
        scrape_configs = []

        # Files config
        labels = common_labels.copy()
        labels.update(
            {
                "job": job_name,
                "__path__": "",
            }
        )
        config = {"targets": ["localhost"], "labels": labels}
        scrape_config = {
            "job_name": "system",
            "static_configs": self._generate_static_configs(config, container_name),
        }
        scrape_configs.append(scrape_config)

        # Syslog config
        syslog_port = self._logs_scheme.get(container_name, {}).get("syslog-port")
        if syslog_port:
            relabel_mappings = [
                "severity",
                "facility",
                "hostname",
                "app_name",
                "proc_id",
                "msg_id",
            ]
            syslog_labels = common_labels.copy()
            syslog_labels.update({"job": f"{job_name}_syslog"})
            syslog_config = {
                "job_name": "syslog",
                "syslog": {
                    "listen_address": f"127.0.0.1:{syslog_port}",
                    "label_structured_data": True,
                    "labels": syslog_labels,
                },
                "relabel_configs": [
                    {"source_labels": [f"__syslog_message_{val}"], "target_label": val}
                    for val in relabel_mappings
                ]
                + [{"action": "labelmap", "regex": "__syslog_message_sd_(.+)"}],
            }
            scrape_configs.append(syslog_config)  # type: ignore

        return {"scrape_configs": scrape_configs}

    def _generate_static_configs(self, config: dict, container_name: str) -> list:
        """Generates static_configs section.

        Returns:
            - a list of dictionaries representing static_configs section
        """
        static_configs = []

        for _file in self._logs_scheme.get(container_name, {}).get("log-files", []):
            conf = deepcopy(config)
            conf["labels"]["__path__"] = _file
            static_configs.append(conf)

        return static_configs

    def _setup_promtail(self, container: Container) -> None:
        # Use the first
        relations = self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]
        if len(relations) > 1:
            logger.debug(
                "Multiple log_proxy relations. Getting Promtail from application {}".format(
                    relations[0].app.name
                )
            )
        relation = relations[0]
        promtail_binaries = json.loads(
            relation.data[relation.app].get("promtail_binary_zip_url", "{}")
        )
        if not promtail_binaries:
            return

        self._create_directories(container)
        self._ensure_promtail_binary(promtail_binaries, container)

        container.push(
            WORKLOAD_CONFIG_PATH,
            yaml.safe_dump(self._promtail_config(container.name)),
            make_dirs=True,
        )

        workload_binary_path = os.path.join(
            WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR, promtail_binaries[self._arch]["filename"]
        )
        self._add_pebble_layer(workload_binary_path, container)

        if self._current_config(container).get("clients"):
            try:
                container.restart(WORKLOAD_SERVICE_NAME)
            except ChangeError as e:
                self.on.promtail_digest_error.emit(str(e))
            else:
                self.on.log_proxy_endpoint_joined.emit()
        else:
            self.on.promtail_digest_error.emit("No promtail client endpoints available!")

    def _ensure_promtail_binary(self, promtail_binaries: dict, container: Container):
        if self._is_promtail_installed(promtail_binaries[self._arch], container):
            return

        try:
            self._obtain_promtail(promtail_binaries[self._arch], container)
        except URLError as e:
            msg = f"Promtail binary couldn't be downloaded - {str(e)}"
            logger.warning(msg)
            self.on.promtail_digest_error.emit(msg)

    def _is_promtail_installed(self, promtail_info: dict, container: Container) -> bool:
        """Determine if promtail has already been installed to the container.

        Args:
            promtail_info: dictionary containing information about promtail binary
               that must be used. The dictionary must at least contain a key
               "filename" giving the name of promtail binary
            container: container in which to check whether promtail is installed.
        """
        workload_binary_path = f"{WORKLOAD_BINARY_DIR}/{promtail_info['filename']}"
        try:
            container.list_files(workload_binary_path)
        except (APIError, FileNotFoundError):
            return False
        return True

    def _generate_promtails_ports(self, logs_scheme) -> dict:
        return {
            container: {
                "http_listen_port": HTTP_LISTEN_PORT_START + 2 * i,
                "grpc_listen_port": GRPC_LISTEN_PORT_START + 2 * i,
            }
            for i, container in enumerate(logs_scheme.keys())
        }

    def syslog_port(self, container_name: str) -> str:
        """Gets the port on which promtail is listening for syslog in this container.

        Returns:
            A str representing the port
        """
        return str(self._logs_scheme.get(container_name, {}).get("syslog-port"))

    def rsyslog_config(self, container_name: str) -> str:
        """Generates a config line for use with rsyslog.

        Returns:
            The rsyslog config line as a string
        """
        return 'action(type="omfwd" protocol="tcp" target="127.0.0.1" port="{}" Template="RSYSLOG_SyslogProtocol23Format" TCP_Framing="octet-counted")'.format(
            self._logs_scheme.get(container_name, {}).get("syslog-port")
        )

    @property
    def _containers(self) -> Dict[str, Container]:
        return {cont: self._charm.unit.get_container(cont) for cont in self._logs_scheme.keys()}


class _PebbleLogClient:
    @staticmethod
    def check_juju_version() -> bool:
        """Make sure the Juju version supports Log Forwarding."""
        juju_version = JujuVersion.from_environ()
        if not juju_version > JujuVersion(version=str("3.3")):
            msg = f"Juju version {juju_version} does not support Pebble log forwarding. Juju >= 3.4 is needed."
            logger.warning(msg)
            return False
        return True

    @staticmethod
    def _build_log_target(
        unit_name: str, loki_endpoint: str, topology: JujuTopology, enable: bool
    ) -> Dict:
        """Build a log target for the log forwarding Pebble layer.

        Log target's syntax for enabling/disabling forwarding is explained here:
        https://github.com/canonical/pebble?tab=readme-ov-file#log-forwarding
        """
        services_value = ["all"] if enable else ["-all"]

        log_target = {
            "override": "replace",
            "services": services_value,
            "type": "loki",
            "location": loki_endpoint,
        }
        if enable:
            log_target.update(
                {
                    "labels": {
                        "product": "Juju",
                        "charm": topology._charm_name,
                        "juju_model": topology._model,
                        "juju_model_uuid": topology._model_uuid,
                        "juju_application": topology._application,
                        "juju_unit": topology._unit,
                    },
                }
            )

        return {unit_name: log_target}

    @staticmethod
    def _build_log_targets(
        loki_endpoints: Optional[Dict[str, str]], topology: JujuTopology, enable: bool
    ):
        """Build all the targets for the log forwarding Pebble layer."""
        targets = {}
        if not loki_endpoints:
            return targets

        for unit_name, endpoint in loki_endpoints.items():
            targets.update(
                _PebbleLogClient._build_log_target(
                    unit_name=unit_name,
                    loki_endpoint=endpoint,
                    topology=topology,
                    enable=enable,
                )
            )
        return targets

    @staticmethod
    def disable_inactive_endpoints(
        container: Container, active_endpoints: Dict[str, str], topology: JujuTopology
    ):
        """Disable forwarding for inactive endpoints by checking against the Pebble plan."""
        pebble_layer = container.get_plan().to_dict().get("log-targets", None)
        if not pebble_layer:
            return

        for unit_name, target in pebble_layer.items():
            # If the layer is a disabled log forwarding endpoint, skip it
            if "-all" in target["services"]:  # pyright: ignore
                continue

            if unit_name not in active_endpoints:
                layer = Layer(
                    {  # pyright: ignore
                        "log-targets": _PebbleLogClient._build_log_targets(
                            loki_endpoints={unit_name: "(removed)"},
                            topology=topology,
                            enable=False,
                        )
                    }
                )
                container.add_layer(f"{container.name}-log-forwarding", layer=layer, combine=True)

    @staticmethod
    def enable_endpoints(
        container: Container, active_endpoints: Dict[str, str], topology: JujuTopology
    ):
        """Enable forwarding for the specified Loki endpoints."""
        layer = Layer(
            {  # pyright: ignore
                "log-targets": _PebbleLogClient._build_log_targets(
                    loki_endpoints=active_endpoints,
                    topology=topology,
                    enable=True,
                )
            }
        )
        container.add_layer(f"{container.name}-log-forwarding", layer, combine=True)


class LogForwarder(ConsumerBase):
    """Forward the standard outputs of all workloads operated by a charm to one or multiple Loki endpoints.

    This class implements Pebble log forwarding. Juju >= 3.4 is needed.
    """

    def __init__(
        self,
        charm: CharmBase,
        *,
        relation_name: str = DEFAULT_RELATION_NAME,
        alert_rules_path: str = DEFAULT_ALERT_RULES_RELATIVE_PATH,
        recursive: bool = True,
        skip_alert_topology_labeling: bool = False,
    ):
        _PebbleLogClient.check_juju_version()
        super().__init__(
            charm, relation_name, alert_rules_path, recursive, skip_alert_topology_labeling
        )
        self._charm = charm
        self._relation_name = relation_name

        on = self._charm.on[self._relation_name]
        self.framework.observe(on.relation_joined, self._update_logging)
        self.framework.observe(on.relation_changed, self._update_logging)
        self.framework.observe(on.relation_departed, self._update_logging)
        self.framework.observe(on.relation_broken, self._update_logging)

        for container_name in self._charm.meta.containers.keys():
            snake_case_container_name = container_name.replace("-", "_")
            self.framework.observe(
                getattr(self._charm.on, f"{snake_case_container_name}_pebble_ready"),
                self._on_pebble_ready,
            )

    def _on_pebble_ready(self, event: PebbleReadyEvent):
        if not (loki_endpoints := self._retrieve_endpoints_from_relation()):
            logger.warning("No Loki endpoints available")
            return

        self._update_endpoints(event.workload, loki_endpoints)

    def _update_logging(self, _):
        """Update the log forwarding to match the active Loki endpoints."""
        if not (loki_endpoints := self._retrieve_endpoints_from_relation()):
            logger.warning("No Loki endpoints available")
            return

        for container in self._charm.unit.containers.values():
            self._update_endpoints(container, loki_endpoints)

    def _retrieve_endpoints_from_relation(self) -> dict:
        loki_endpoints = {}

        # Get the endpoints from relation data
        for relation in self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]:
            loki_endpoints.update(self._fetch_endpoints(relation))

        return loki_endpoints

    def _update_endpoints(self, container: Container, loki_endpoints: dict):
        _PebbleLogClient.disable_inactive_endpoints(
            container=container,
            active_endpoints=loki_endpoints,
            topology=self.topology,
        )
        _PebbleLogClient.enable_endpoints(
            container=container, active_endpoints=loki_endpoints, topology=self.topology
        )

    def is_ready(self, relation: Optional[Relation] = None):
        """Check if the relation is active and healthy."""
        if not relation:
            relations = self._charm.model.relations[self._relation_name]
            if not relations:
                return False
            return all(self.is_ready(relation) for relation in relations)

        try:
            if self._extract_urls(relation):
                return True
            return False
        except (KeyError, json.JSONDecodeError):
            return False

    def _extract_urls(self, relation: Relation) -> Dict[str, str]:
        """Default getter function to extract Loki endpoints from a relation.

        Returns:
            A dictionary of remote units and the respective Loki endpoint.
            {
                "loki/0": "http://loki:3100/loki/api/v1/push",
                "another-loki/0": "http://another-loki:3100/loki/api/v1/push",
            }
        """
        endpoints: Dict = {}

        for unit in relation.units:
            endpoint = relation.data[unit]["endpoint"]
            deserialized_endpoint = json.loads(endpoint)
            url = deserialized_endpoint["url"]
            endpoints[unit.name] = url

        return endpoints

    def _fetch_endpoints(self, relation: Relation) -> Dict[str, str]:
        """Fetch Loki Push API endpoints from relation data using the endpoints getter."""
        endpoints: Dict = {}

        if not self.is_ready(relation):
            logger.warning(f"The relation '{relation.name}' is not ready yet.")
            return endpoints

        # if the code gets here, the function won't raise anymore because it's
        # also called in is_ready()
        endpoints = self._extract_urls(relation)

        return endpoints


class CosTool:
    """Uses cos-tool to inject label matchers into alert rule expressions and validate rules."""

    _path = None
    _disabled = False

    def __init__(self, charm):
        self._charm = charm

    @property
    def path(self):
        """Lazy lookup of the path of cos-tool."""
        if self._disabled:
            return None
        if not self._path:
            self._path = self._get_tool_path()
            if not self._path:
                logger.debug("Skipping injection of juju topology as label matchers")
                self._disabled = True
        return self._path

    def apply_label_matchers(self, rules) -> dict:
        """Will apply label matchers to the expression of all alerts in all supplied groups."""
        if not self.path:
            return rules
        for group in rules["groups"]:
            rules_in_group = group.get("rules", [])
            for rule in rules_in_group:
                topology = {}
                # if the user for some reason has provided juju_unit, we'll need to honor it
                # in most cases, however, this will be empty
                for label in [
                    "juju_model",
                    "juju_model_uuid",
                    "juju_application",
                    "juju_charm",
                    "juju_unit",
                ]:
                    if label in rule["labels"]:
                        topology[label] = rule["labels"][label]

                rule["expr"] = self.inject_label_matchers(rule["expr"], topology)
        return rules

    def validate_alert_rules(self, rules: dict) -> Tuple[bool, str]:
        """Will validate correctness of alert rules, returning a boolean and any errors."""
        if not self.path:
            logger.debug("`cos-tool` unavailable. Not validating alert correctness.")
            return True, ""

        with tempfile.TemporaryDirectory() as tmpdir:
            rule_path = Path(tmpdir + "/validate_rule.yaml")

            # Smash "our" rules format into what upstream actually uses, which is more like:
            #
            # groups:
            #   - name: foo
            #     rules:
            #       - alert: SomeAlert
            #         expr: up
            #       - alert: OtherAlert
            #         expr: up
            transformed_rules = {"groups": []}  # type: ignore
            for rule in rules["groups"]:
                transformed_rules["groups"].append(rule)

            rule_path.write_text(yaml.dump(transformed_rules))
            args = [str(self.path), "--format", "logql", "validate", str(rule_path)]
            # noinspection PyBroadException
            try:
                self._exec(args)
                return True, ""
            except subprocess.CalledProcessError as e:
                logger.debug("Validating the rules failed: %s", e.output)
                return False, ", ".join([line for line in e.output if "error validating" in line])

    def inject_label_matchers(self, expression, topology) -> str:
        """Add label matchers to an expression."""
        if not topology:
            return expression
        if not self.path:
            logger.debug("`cos-tool` unavailable. Leaving expression unchanged: %s", expression)
            return expression
        args = [str(self.path), "--format", "logql", "transform"]
        args.extend(
            ["--label-matcher={}={}".format(key, value) for key, value in topology.items()]
        )

        args.extend(["{}".format(expression)])
        # noinspection PyBroadException
        try:
            return self._exec(args)
        except subprocess.CalledProcessError as e:
            logger.debug('Applying the expression failed: "%s", falling back to the original', e)
            print('Applying the expression failed: "{}", falling back to the original'.format(e))
            return expression

    def _get_tool_path(self) -> Optional[Path]:
        arch = platform.processor()
        arch = "amd64" if arch == "x86_64" else arch
        res = "cos-tool-{}".format(arch)
        try:
            path = Path(res).resolve()
            path.chmod(0o777)
            return path
        except NotImplementedError:
            logger.debug("System lacks support for chmod")
        except FileNotFoundError:
            logger.debug('Could not locate cos-tool at: "{}"'.format(res))
        return None

    def _exec(self, cmd) -> str:
        result = subprocess.run(cmd, check=True, stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
        output = result.stdout.decode("utf-8").strip()
        return output